The Trail of Tears

Jacksonian America and the Indian Removal Act of 1830

1610s European diseases arrive in the Northeast; measles and smallpox epidemics kill thousands of Indians in New England
1620 Landing at Plymouth; European settlement of New England begins
1636-37 Pequot War
Mid-1600s Praying towns for Christian Indians established
1675-76 King Phillip's War, end of Indian independence in southern New England
Late 1600s Indian reservations established in New England
1754-63 French and Indian War, many New England Indians fight alongside colonists
1775-1783 American Revolution, many New England Indians fight alongside
1788 Ratification of the Constitution
1790 First of the Indian Trade and Intercourse Acts is passed, prohibiting anyone from purchasing Indian land without federal approval
1798 William Apess born in Massachusetts
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1811 War with Indians in Old Northwest, Battle of Tippecanoe
1812-13 Creek War in what is now Alabama, then eastern part of Mississippi Territory
1818 First Seminole War in Florida
1819 Indian "Civilization Fund Act" to educate and "civilize" Indian Nations
1824 President Monroe proposes Indian removal
1829-36 Writings of William Apess published
1829-37 Presidency of Andrew Jackson, a strong advocate of Indian Removal
1830 Indian Removal Act
1830-32 Black Hawk War in what is now Wisconsin, then Michigan Territory, and the State of Illinois
1831 The "Trail of Tears"—Indian removals across the Mississippi begin in southern states